Human, Organizational Factors (HOF) and workplace accidents among the Ferroalloy industries in Bhutan

Phuntsho Dendup, Twisuk Punpeng, Chaweewon Boonshuyar


Introduction: Human and organisational factors (HOF) are essential components of all types of industry. On one hand, HOF is found to be the influencing factor that contributes to the workplace injuries while on the other hand, HOF has long been accepted as having a significant role in accident prevention in any industries. Nevertheless, no study was found to be conducted on contribution and prevention of workplace accident due to HOF in Ferroalloy industry in Bhutan. Objectives: to describe how the HOF contribute to accident and their association with workplace accident in the ferroalloy industries. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study with a sample size of 300 workers selected proportionately among the six ferroalloy industries in Bhutan. Results: Among the human factors, this study found a significant association between regular employment, workers with dependents, and four occupations of 12 listed. Among the occupations, Tapper, Electrician, Mechanic, and Lab technician were found significantly associated with workplace accident. The nature of these jobs was found physically demanding and more hazardous than other occupations. The significant result between workers with dependent and workplace accident was supported by higher incidence of workplace accident among the married and divorced workers (21.2%) compared to single (17.4%). The equipment and training of organisational factors were found to be significantly associated with workplace accident. Conclusion: The social factors were also found to be the triggering factors of a workplace accident. Similarly, poor level of equipment and training of an organisation such as lack of regular safety training, and inadequate and sub-standards equipment were the contributing factors of the workplace accident. HOF was also influenced by lack of strong OHSMS at the workplace and National OHSA in the country.


Human and organisational factors, workplace injuries,Ferroalloy industry, Shift duties, PPE, Overtime

Full Text:



Gulhan B, Ilhan MN, Civil EF. Occupational accidents and affecting factors of metal industry in a factory in Ankara. Turkish Journal of Public Health. 2012;10(2):76.

Robertson K, Black J, Grand-Clement S, Hall A. Human and Organisational Factors in Major Accident Prevention. RAND Europe. 2016.

Chen S-T, Wall A, Davies P, Yang Z, Wang J, Chou Y-H. A Human and Organisational Factors (HOFs) analysis method for marine casualties using HFACS-Maritime Accidents (HFACS-MA). Safety Science. 2013;60:105-14.

Ganguly S. Human error Vs. Work place Management in modern organizations IRACST - International Journal of Research in Management and Technology (IJRMT). 2011;1(1).

Reyes RM, de la Riva J, Maldonado A, Woocay A, de la O R. Association between Human Error and Occupational Accidents’ Contributing Factors for Hand Injuries in the Automotive Manufacturing Industry. Procedia Manufacturing 2015;3:6498-504.

Tau S. Analyzing the Impact that Lack of Supervision Has on Safety Culture and Accident Rates as a Proactive Approach to Curbing the South African Railway Industrys High Incident Occurrence Rate2017. 189-97 p.

Seo H-C, Lee Y-S, Kim J-J, Jee N-Y. Analyzing-safety-behaviors-of-temporary-construction-workers-using-structural-equation-modeling. Safety Science. 2015.

Liu X, Huang G, Huang H, Wang S, Xiao Y, Chen W. Safety climate, safety behavior, and worker injuries in the Chinese manufacturing industry. Safety Science. 2015.

B. L Tanko, Anigbogu NA. The use of Personal Protective equipment (PPE) on Construction sites in Nigeria 4th West Africa Built Environment Research (WABER) Conference Abujia, Nigeria: ResearchGate; 2012.

Shappell SA, Wiegmann DA. Human Factors Investigation and Analysis of Accidents and Incidents. Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences. second ed: Elsevier; 2013. p. 440-9.

Alli BO. Fundamental principles of occupational health and safety 2nd ed. GENEVA: Internternational Labour Office; 2008.

Heo Y-S, Leem J-H, Park S-G, Jung D-Y, Kim H-C. Job stress as a risk factor for absences among manual workers: a 12-month follow-up study. Industrial Health. 2015;53(6):542-52.

Karaguven M. The Relationships Between Work Accident, Educational Backgrounds and Stress Levels of Textile Workers. European Conference on Educational Research; Lahti, Finland 221999.

Uehli K, Mehta AJ, Miedinger D, Hug K, Schindler C, Holsboer-Trachsler E, et al. Sleep problems and work injuries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sleep Medicine Reviews. 2014;18(1):61-73.

Ajslev J, Dastjerdi EL, Dyreborg J, Kines P, Jeschke KC, Sundstrup E, et al. Safety climate and accidents at work: Cross-sectional study among 15,000 workers of the general working population. Safety Science. 2017;91:320-5.

Kim S-K, Kim H, Lee K, Kang H-T, Oh S-S, Ko SB. The Relationship between Injury and Socioeconomic Status in Reference to the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2014;26:1-.

Camino López MA, Ritzel DO, Fontaneda I, González Alcantara OJ. Construction industry accidents in Spain. Journal of Safety Research. 2008;39(5):497-507.

Berecki-Gisolf J, Tawatsupa B, McClure R, Seubsman S-a, Sleigh A. Determinants of workplace injury among Thai Cohort Study participants. BMJ Open. 2013;3(7).

Islam SS, Velilla AM, Doyle EJ, Ducatman AM. Gender differences in work-related injury/illness: analysis of workers compensation claims. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 2001;39(1):84-91.

Tessier-Sherman B, Cantley LF, Galusha D, Slade MD, Taiwo OA, Cullen MR. Occupational injury risk by sex in a manufacturing cohort. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2014.

North America GCR. New Survey: More Education Means More On-the-Job Engagement, But Also More Stress 2011 [Available from:

Garg N. Employee Engagement and individual differences: A study in Indian Context. Management Studies and Economic Systems. 2014;1(1):41-50.

Bena A, Giraudo M, Leombruni R, Costa G. Job tenure and work injuries: a multivariate analysis of the relation with previous experience and differences by age. BMC Public Health. 2013;13(1):869.


Copyright (c) 2017 International Journal of Preventive, Curative & Community Medicine

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.