Cracked Tooth Syndrome (CTS) - A Review and Updates

H C Baranwal, Akash Kumar Baranwal, Pragati Sachan, Adit Srivastava


Till date, in the current dental practices, dentists often come across with few critical dental situations that remain undiagnosed or not managed properly. They should be careful about such conditions. Cracked tooth syndrome (CTS) may be one of those conditions. The diagnosis of CTS at an early stage may lead to successful restorative management and good outcomes. Purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the clinical features, diagnosis, classification, and management of cracked teeth which may be a diagnostic challenge in clinical practice.


Endodontics, Cracked teeth, Pulpitis, Microleakage, Temporo-mandibular joint.

Full Text:



Rivera EM, Williamson A. Diagnosis and treatment planning: Cracked tooth. Tex Dent J 2003; 120(3): 278-83.

Gibbs JW. Cuspal fracture odontalgia. Dent Digest 1954; 60: 158-60.

Cameron CE. The cracked tooth syndrome: Additional findings. J Am Dent Assoc 1976; 93: 971-75.

Ehrmann EH, Tyass MJ. Cracked-tooth syndrome: Diagnosis, treatment and correlation between symptoms and post-extraction findings. Aust Dent J 1990; 35: 105-102.

Geurtsen W, Schwarze T, Günay H. Diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of the cracked tooth syndrome. Quintess Int 2003; 34: 409-17.

Ellis SGS. Incomplete tooth fracture-proposal for a new definition. Br Dent J 2001; 190: 424-28.

Kahler B, Stenzell D, Moule A. Bacterial contamination of cracks in symptomatic vital teeth. Aust Endod J 2000; 26: 115-17.

Brännström M. The hydrodynamic theory of dentinal pain: Sensation in preparations, caries, and the dentinal crack syndrome. J Endod 1986; 12: 453-57.

Rosen H. Cracked tooth syndrome. J Prosthet Dent 1982; 47(1): 36-43.

Bales DJ. Pain and the cracked tooth. J Indian Dent Assoc 1975; 54(5): 8-15.

Chong BS. Bilateral cracked teeth: A case report. Int Endod J 1989; 22: 193-96.

Homewood CI. Cracked tooth syndrome. Incidence, clinical findings and treatment. Aust Dent J 1998; 43: 217-22.

Bergenholtz G. Pathogenic mechanisms in pulpal disease. J Endod 1990; 16: 98-101.

Lynch CD, McConell RJ. The cracked tooth syndrome. J Can Dent Assoc 2002; 68: 470-75.

Liu HH, Sidhu SK. Cracked teeth treatment rational and case management: Case reports. Quintess Int 1995; 26: 485-92.

Lubisich EB, Hilton TJ, Ferracane J. Cracked teeth: A review of the Literature. J Esthet Restor Dent 2010; 22: 158-67.

Silvestri AR, Singh I. Treatment rationale of fractured posterior teeth. J Am Dent Assoc 1978; 97: 806-10.

Bader JD, Shugars DA, Sturdevant JR. Consequences of posterior cusp fracture. Gen Dent 2004; 63: 128-31.

Burke FJT. Tooth fracture in vivo and in vitro. J Dent 1992; 20: 131-39.

Gutmann JL, Rakusin H. Endodontic and restorative management of incompletely fractured molar teeth. Int Endod J 1994; 27: 343-48.

Abbott P. Endodontics and dental traumatology. An overview of modern endodontics. Teaching manual. Perth: The University of Western Australia, 1999: 11-15.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c)