Prevalence of Hypertension among Medical Students with Positive Familial History of Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus in a Medical College of Delhi

Akshun Jani, Jugal Kishore

Abstract


Background: Genetic basis of hypertension and familial aggregation are both well demonstrated and established in the research. We attempted to find out that college going (in a medical college in the present study) students have presence or not of high blood pressure in them during 18 - 25 age group with a positive familial history.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of hypertension in medical students with positive family history of hypertension alone and/or with diabetes mellitus in a medical college in New Delhi.

Methods: A total of 300 students were included in the study and data was collected with the help of questionnaire particularly on familial histories of students. The BP was measured using standard electronic sphygmomanometer after proper calibration. There were two parallel case control studies:

Results: Study I: 9% subjects were hypertensive in those with positive history of hypertension in family (Group I) compared to 4% subjects in those who did not have (Group II) with Odds ratio of 2.37 (C.I. = 0.7 – 1.9), which was insignificant (P value = 0.15). Study II: Eight (8%) students had hypertension with a family history of hypertension and diabetes both and four (4%) students had hypertension without a family history of either hypertension or diabetes. The Odds ratio was 2.08 (C.I. = 0.6 – 7.16) which was insignificant (P Value = 0.23).

Conclusion: Since there was insignificant association between positive family history and presence of hypertension in this age group, we can attribute this to lower age group or smaller sample size. A study with higher age group and larger sample size is warranted. Since Hypertension is an iceberg disease early detection in this age group can be done by other parameters or biomarkers (other than BP measurements) like Lipoprotein (a) and Apo-lipoprotein B, insulin resistance and endothelial activation etc.


Keywords


College students, Familial History, Diabetes, High blood pressure

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