Psychological Treatment of Patients with Depressive Rumination

Mahe Naz, Akbar Husain


The concept of rumination has gained popularity in recent years and its domain has been linked with a few branches of psychology such as social, clinical, developmental and cognitive psychology as well as other inter disciplinary channels.30 Rumination increases depression because it makes it difficult for people to switch their attention away from themselves and their problems to pleasant distracting topics or activities. Rumination involves behaviors and thoughts that passively focus one’s depressive symptoms and on the implications of these symptoms, which leads to maintain their depression.21 In the present paper, we have discussed comparisons of depressive rumination with other cognitive processes, functions of rumination, psychological treatment of rumination by thought stopping, cognitive therapy, meditation, attention training, and coping mechanisms of depressive rumination 


Rumination, Depressive rumination

Full Text:



References 1. Abramson LY, Metalsky GI, Alloy LB. Hopelessness depression: A theory-based subtype of depression. Psychological Review 1989; 96: 358-72. 2. Alloy LB, Abramson LY. The Temple-Wisconsin Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression (CVD) project: Conceptual background, design and methods. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly 1999; 13:, 227-62. 3. Beck AT. Depression: Clinical, experimental, and theoretical aspects. New York: Harper & Row 1967. 4. Beck AT. Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. New York: International Universities Press 1976. 5. Borkovec TD, Costello E. Efficacy of applied relaxation and cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1993: 61: 611-19. 6. Borkovec T D, Robinson E, Pruzinsky T et al. Preliminary exploration of worry: Some characteristics and processes. Behaviour Research and Therapy 1983; 21: 9-16. 7. Conway M, Csank PAR, Holm SL et al. On assessing individual differences in rumination on sadness. Journal of Personality Assessment 2000; 75: 404-25. 8. Driscoll K,. Lopez C, Kistner J. A diathesis-stress test of response styles in children. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 2009; 28: 1050-70. 9. Fenigstein A, Scheier M, Buss AH. Public and private self-consciousness: Assessment and theory. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1975; 43: 522-27. 10. Law HM. Probing the depression-rumination cycle: why chewing on problems just makes them harder to swallow. Monitor staff 2005; 36(8): 1-38. 11. Lyubomirsky. The how of happiness: A scientific approach to getting the life you want. Penguin Press 2008. 12. Lyubomirsky, Caldwell N, Nolen-Hoeksema S. Effects of ruminative and distracting responses to depressed mood on retrieval of autobiographical memories. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1998; 75(1): 166-77. 13. Lyubomirsky S, Nolen-Hoeksema S. Self-perpetuating properties of dysphoric rumination. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1993; 65: 339-49. 14. Lyubomirsky S, Nolen-Hoeksema S. Effects of selffocused rumination on negative thinking and interpersonal problem solving. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1995; 69: 176-90. 15. Martin LL, Tesser A. Toward a motivational and structural theory of ruminative thought. In Uleman JS, Bargh JA (eds.). Unintended Thought. New York: Guilford Press 1989; 306-26. 16. Martin LL, Tesser A. Some ruminative thoughts. In Wyer RS, Jr. (Ed.), Ruminative Thoughts. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum 1996; 1-47.

Molina S, Borkovec TD, Peasley C et al. Content analysis of worrisome streams of consciousness in anxious and dysphoric participants. Cognitive Therapy and Research 1998; 22: 109-23. 18. Morrow J, Nolen-Hoeksema S. Effects of responses to depression on the remediation of depressive affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1990; 58: 519-27. 19. Nolen-Hoeksema S, Morrow J. Effects of rumination and distraction on naturally occurring depressed mood. Cognition and Emotion 1993; 7: 561-70. 20. Nolen-Hoeksema S. Sex differences in unipolar depression: Evidence and theory. Psychological Bulletin 1987; 101: 259-82. 21. Nolen-Hoeksema S. Responses to depression and their effects on the duration of depressive episodes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 1991; 100: 569-82. 22. Nolen-Hoeksema S. The role of rumination in depressive disorders and mixed anxiety/depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 2000; 109: 504-11. 23. Nolen-Hoeksema S, Morrow J. Effects of rumination and distraction on naturally occurring depressed mood. Cognition and Emotion 1993; 7: 561-70. 24. Nolen-Hoeksema S, Larson J, Grayson C. Explaining the gender difference in depressive symptoms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1999; 77: 1061-72. 25. Nolen-Hoeksema S, Parker L, Larson J. Ruminative coping with depressed mood following loss. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1994; 67: 92-104. 26. Nolen-Hoeksema S, Wisco B, Lyubomirsky S. Rethinking rumination. Perspectives on Psychological Science 2008; 3(5): 400-24. 27. Papageorgiou C, Wells A. Treatment of recurrent major depression with attention training. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice 2000; 7: 407-13. 28. Papageorgiou C, Wells A. Positive beliefs about depressive rumination: Development and preliminary validation of a self-report scale. Behavior Therapy 2001a; 32: 13-26. 29. Papageorgiou C, Wells A. Metacognitive beliefs about rumination in recurrent major depression. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice 2001b; 8: 160-64. 30. Papageorgiou C, Wells A. Nature, functions, and beliefs about depressive rumination. Nature, Theory and Treatment Wiley. 2004. Retrieved on Aug 2, 2013 from excerpt/22/04714869/0471486922.pdf. 31. Pyszczynski T, Greenberg J. Self-regulatory perseveration and the depressive self-focusing style: A self-awareness theory of reactive depression. Psychological Bulletin 1987; 102: 122-38. 32. Pyszczynski T, Greenberg J, Hamilton JH et al. On the relationship between self-focused attention and psychological disorder: A critical reappraisal. Psychological Bulletin 1991; 110: 538-43. 33. Rippere V. What’s the thing to do when you’re feeling

J. Integ. Comm. Health 2017; 6(2)

ISSN: 2319-9113

Naz M et al.

depressed?: A pilot study. Behaviour Research and Therapy 1977; 15: 185-91. 34. Robinson SM, Alloy LB. Negative cognitive styles and stress-reactive rumination interact to predict depression: A prospective study. Cognitive Therapy and Research 2003; 27: 275-91. 35. Sanna LJ, Stocker SL, Clarke JA. Rumination, imagination, and personality: Specters of the past and future in the present. In Chang EC, Sanna LJ (Eds). Virtue, Vice, and Personality. Washington, DC: APA 2003. 105-24. 36. Segal ZV, Williams JMG, Teasdale JD. mindfulness based cognitive therapy for depression: A new approach for preventing relapse. New York: Guilford Press 2002. 37. Siegle GJ, Sagrati S, Crawford CE. Effects of rumination and initial severity on response to cognitive therapy for depression. Paper presented at the 33rd Annual Convention of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Toronto. 1999. 38. Spasojevic J, Alloy LB. (2001). Rumination as a common mechanism relating depressive risk factors to depression. Emotion 2001; 1: 25-37. 39. Starcevic V. Pathological worry in major depression: A preliminary report. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1995; 33: 55-56. 40. Szabo M, Lovibond PF. The cognitive content of naturally occurring worry episodes. Cognitive Therapy and Research 2002; 26: 167-77.

Teasdale JD. Negative thinking in depression: Cause, effect or reciprocal relationship? Advances in Behaviour Research and Therapy 1983; 5: 3-25. 42. Teasdale J, Segal Z, Williams J et al. Prevention of relapse/recurrence in major depression by mindfulnessbased cognitive therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2000; 68: 615-23. 43. Watkins E, Baracaia S. Why do people ruminate in dysphoric moods? Personality and Individual Differences 2001; 30: 723-34. 44. Watkins E, Teasdale JD. Rumination and over general memory in depression: Effects of self-focus and analytic thinking. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 2001; 110: 353-57. 45. Wells A, Matthews G. Attention and Emotion: A Clinical Perspective. Hove, UK: Lawrence Erlbaum 1994. 46. Wells A. Panic disorder in association with relaxation induced anxiety: An attentional training approach to treatment. Behavior Therapy 1990; 21: 273-80. 47. Wells A. Emotional Disorders and Metacognition: Innovative Cognitive Therapy. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons 2000. 48. Wolpe J. The Practice of Behavior Therapy. New York: Pergamon Press 1973.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Integrated Community Health

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.