Evaluation of Fast-food and Prepared Food Contamination with Health Pests

Rouhullah Dehghani, Esmaeil Charkhloo, Mona Ramezani, Hosein Salehi, Behrooz Jannat, Seyedmahdi Takhtfiroozeh


Background: Biologic and pathogenic contamination of food is the most important cause of illness and death in developing countries. Providing food security during the food preparation for restaurants and selfservices is very important. The aim of this study was to determine level of prepared food contamination with egg, larvae and adult insects, or other health pests.

Methods: In a period of 3 years, samples of food (26) suspected to be contaminated with biological agents related to various restaurants and universities’ self-services and were investigated. Organs or larval stages of insects were isolated and were later cleaned using water. The samples were identified using a stereo microscope. The results were compared using images and tables.

Results: Contaminated food and fast food including kabab koobideh and celery stew respectively accounted for highest (19%) and lowest (1 case) contamination rate in the present study. The contamination rate of the other studied foods was as follow: Rice and raw milk each respectively 15.5%, Kale pache and soup each 11.5%, Ghorme sabzi, khorest-e-gheyme and hamburger each with 7.7%.

Conclusion: Supply of primary healthy food sources and securing food safety during preparation as well as complete and accurate maintenance of food up to the consumption phase are among the most important measures to be considered to prevent food contamination with insect larvae.


Contamination, Food, Fast food, Insects, Larvae, Nymph

Full Text:



Banjo A, Lawal O, Songonuga E. The nutritional value

of fourteen species of edible insects in southwestern

Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology 2006; 5(3):


Srivastava S, Babu N, Pandey H. Traditional insect

bioprospecting - As human food and medicine. Indian

Journal of Traditional Knowledge 2009; 8(4): 485-94.

Ghaly A. The use of insects as human food in Zambia.

J Biol Sci 2009; 9(4): 93-104.

Van Huis A. Insects as food in sub-Saharan Africa.

International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 2003;

(3): 163-85.

Ramos‐elorduy J. Anthropo‐entomophagy: Cultures,

evolution and sustainability. Entomological Research

; 39(5): 271-88.

Organization WH. Foodborne disease outbreaks:

guidelines for investigation and control: World Health

Organization, 2008. Available from: http://apps.who.int/



Elaine S, Patricia MG, Frederick JA et al. Foodborne

illness acquired in the united states-unspecified agents.

Journal of Emerging Infectious Diseases 2001; 17(1):


Pereira KS, Schmidt FL, Guaraldo AM, et al. Chagas’

disease as a foodborne illness. Journal of Food

Protection 2009; 72(2): 441-6.

Scallan E, Griffin PM, Angulo FJ et al. Foodborne illness

acquired in the United States -unspecified agents.

Emerging Infectious Diseases 2011; 17(1): 7-15.

Fang TJ, Wang TH, Hung MJ. Microbiological quality

of 18 degrees 0C ready-to-eat food products sold in

Taiwan. Int J Food Microbiol 2003; 80: 241-50.

Soriano J, Rico H, Moltó J et al. Microbial evaluation

of Spanish potato omelet and cooked meat samples

in University restaurants. Journal of Food Protection

; 63(9): 1273-1276.

Tavakoli H, AA KZ, Izadi M. A Survey on Bacterial

Contamination of Consumpted Foods in Belonging

Centers of Baqiyatallah University of Medical sciences.

Journal Mil Med 2007; 9(2): 89-95.

Tavakoli HR, Riazipour M. Microbial quality of cooked

meat foods in Tehran University’s Restaurants. Pakistan

Journal of Medical Sciences 2008; 24(4): 595-599.

Zarrintab M, Mirzaei R, Mostafaei G et al. Concentrations

of Metals in Feathers of Magpie (Pica pica) from Aran-

O-Bidgol City in Central Iran. Bulletin of Environmental

Contamination and Toxicology 2016; 96(4): 465-471.15. Dehghani R, Moosavi G, Takhtfiroozeh SM et al.

Investigation of the removal of cyanide from aqueous

solutions using biomass Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Desalination and Water Treatment 2016; 57(56):


Dehghani R, Limoee M, Zarghi I. The review of pesticide

hazards with emphasis on insecticide resistance in

arthropods of health risk importance. Scientific Journal

of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences 2012; 17(1):


Dehghani R, Vazirianzadeh B, Asadi MA et al. Infestation

of rodents (Rodentia: Muridae) among houses in

Kashan, Central Iran. Pakistan J Zool 2012; 44: 1721-6.

Vazirianzadeh B, Dehghani R, Mehdinejad M et al. The

first report of drug resistant bacteria isolated from

the brown-banded cockroach, Supella longipalpa, in

Ahvaz, south-western Iran. Journal of Arthropod-Borne

Diseases 2014; 8(1): 53-59.

Talari SA., Yeganeh Moghadam A, Dehghani R.

Chryzomya bezziana infestation. Arch Irn Med 2002;

: 56-58.

Dehghani R, Sedaghat MM, Bidgoli MS. Wound myiasis

due to Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) in Persian

horned viper, Pseudocerastes persicus (Squamata:

Viperidae). Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases 2012;

(1): 86-89.

Rasti S, Dehghani R, Khaledi HN et al. Uncommon

human urinary tract myiasis due to Psychoda Sp.

Larvae, Kashan, Iran: a case report. Iranian Journal of

Parasitology 2016; 11(3): 417-721.

Dehghani R, Zarghi I, Sayyedi H. Genital myiasis of a

sheep by Wohlfahrtia magnifica, in Ghamsar, Kashan,

Iran. Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science 2014;

(3): 332-335.

Dehghani R, Shahrisvand B, Mostafaeii G et al. Frequency

of arthropoda in urban wastes compost process at

laboratory condition. Journal of Entomological Research

; 40(4): 357-364.

Dehghani R, Takhtfiroozeh M, Kanani F et al. Case

report of Stomoxys calcitrans bites in residential area

of Kashan, Iran. Journal of Mazandaran University of

Medical Sciences 2014; 23(110): 257-261.

Hoseinzadeh E, Faghih M, Roshanaei G et al. Chemical

composition and microbiological quality of the central

restaurant food of Hamedan University of Medical

Sciences. Thrita 2013; 2: 101-105.

Réglier-Poupet H, Parain C, Beauvais R et al. Evaluation

of the quality of hospital food from the kitchen to

the patient. Journal of Hospital Infection 2005; 59(2):


Little C, Barnes J, Mitchell R. Microbiological quality

of take-away cooked rice and chicken sandwiches:

effectiveness of food hygiene training of the

management. Communicable Disease and Public

Health/PHLS 2002; 5(4): 289-98.

Plague GR, Voltaire G, Walsh BE et al. Rice weevils and

maize weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) respond

differently to disturbance of stored grain. Annals of

the Entomological Society of America 2010; 103(4):


Rozman V, Korunić Z, Kalinović I et al. Bioactivity of

Cineole against Rice Weevil (Sitophilus Oryzae L.) on

Stored Wheat. Cereal Research Communications 2008;

: 959-962.

Yaganeh Moghadam A, Asadi MA, Dehghani R, et al.

Evaluating the effect of a mixture of alcohol and acetic

acid for otomycosis therapy. Jundishapur Journal of

Microbiology 2010; 3(2): 66-70.

Moghaddam AG, Seyed MR, Rasouli M, et al. Survey on

cattle ticks in Nur, north of Iran. Asian Pacific Journal

of Tropical Biomedicine 2014; 4: 209-212.

Yeganeh Mogadam A, Asadi MA, Dehghani R et al.

The prevalence of otomycosis in Kashan, Iran, during

-2003. Jundishapur J Microbiol 2009; 2(1): 18-21.

Ali AM, Rouhullah D, Reza SM. Epidemiologic study

of onychomycosis and tinea pedis in Kashan, Iran.

Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology 2009; 2(2): 61-64.

Afshar A. A brief report about the concepts of hand

disorders in the Canon of Medicine of Avicenna. The

Journal of Hand Surgery 2011; 36(9): 1509-1514.

Hosseini Kasnavieh SM, Hasan Sadeghi SM, Hosseini

Khameneh SM et al. Dietary Recommendations in

Fracture Healing in Traditional Persian Medicine: A

Historical Review of Literature. Journal of Evidence-

Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine 2017;

(3): 513-517.

Silva B, Bassetto C, Shaw R et al. Parasitism by Oestrus

ovis: Influence of sheep breed and nematode infections.

Veterinary Parasitology 2012; 186(3&4): 437-444.

Silva BFD, Bassetto CC, Amarante AFTD. Epidemiology of

Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae) in sheep in Botucatu,

State of São Paulo. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia

Veterinária 2012; 21(4): 386-390.

Godara R, Sharma R, Sharma C. Aberrant infestation

of goat mandibles with Oestrus ovis larvae. Tropical

Animal Health and Production 2010; 42(1): 137-139.

Papadopoulos E, Chaligiannis I, Morgan ER.

Epidemiology of Oestrus ovis L. (Diptera: Oestridae)

larvae in sheep and goats in Greece. Small Ruminant

Research 2010; 89(1): 51-56.

Rahimi E, Momtaz H, Anari MMH et al. Isolation and

genomic characterization of Escherichia coli O157:

NM and Escherichia coli O157: H7 in minced meat and

some traditional dairy products in Iran. African Journal

of Biotechnology 2012; 11(9): 2328-2332.

Talley J, Broce A, Zurek L. Characterization of stable

fly (Diptera: Muscidae) larval developmental habitat

at round hay bale feeding sites. Journal of medical

entomology 2009; 46(6): 1310-1319.

Shemshad M, Shemshad K, Sedaghat MM et al. First

survey of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on cattle, sheep

and goats in Boeen Zahra and Takistan counties, Iran.Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 2012;

(6): 489-492.

Ziapour SP, Kheiri S, Asgarian F et al. First report of

pyrethroid resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus)

annulatus larvae (Say, 1821) from Iran. Acta Tropica

; 156: 22-29.

Adane B, Bayissa B, Tuffa S et al. Participatory impact

assessment of ticks on cattle milk production in pastoral

and agro-pastoral production systems of Borana Zone,

Oromia Regional State, Southern Ethiopia. Ethiopian

Veterinary Journal 2012; 16(1): 1-13.

Abebe R, Fantahun T, Abera M et al. Survey of ticks

(Acari: Ixodidae) infesting cattle in two districts of

Somali Regional State, Ethiopia. Veterinary World 2010;

(12): 539-543.

Dehghani R, Valizade R, Mahmoodi S. A review of the

scorpion predators and the introduction of Scarites

Subterraneus, as a new predatory of them in Iran.

Journal of Entomological Research 2016; 40(3): 291-

Dehghani R. Solpugidophobia in Iran: Real or Illusion.

J Biol Today’s World 2017; 6: 46-48.

Dehghani R, Akbari H, Vazirianzadeh B. A prospective

study on the seasonal frequencies of insect bites

(Diptera: Culicidae and Phlebotominae) and the related

environmental and protective method factors in the

city of Kashan, central of Iran, 2009. Pak J Med Sci

; 28(1): 158-161.

Dehghani R, Arani MG. Scorpion sting prevention and

treatment in ancient Iran. Journal of Traditional and

Complementary Medicine 2015; 5(2): 75-80.

Dehghani R, Bidgoli MS, Takhtfiroozeh S et al.

Contamination status of hospitals and health care

centers by rodents (Rodentia: Muridae) in Iran. J

Commun Dis 2018; 50(2): 11-16.

Kazemi-Moghaddam V, Dehghani R, Hadei M et al.

Rodent-borne and rodent-related diseases in Iran.

Comp Clin Pathol 2018: 1-13.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Communicable Diseases (P-ISSN: 0019-5138 & E-ISSN: 2581-351X)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.