Barriers in Utilization of Doorstep Mammography Screening by Women of Chandigarh

Sonia Puri, Raman Sharma, Ritika Sharma, Ravinder Kaur, Sagar Bansal


Mobile mammography is an effort to provide doorstep screening and address barriers to avail screening by women. Though many mobile mammography outreaches are there but there is paucity of data regarding population served and the barriers to avail utilization.

Aims and Objectives: 1. To ascertain the sociodemographic profile of women getting mammography done; 2. To assess the barriers faced by women in utilization of mammography screening.

Methodology: Cross-sectional study.

Study Time: 24 months.

Results: During the 24 months of study period, a total of 38 camps were organized and 272 women underwent mammography scan. The mean age of the participants under study was 41 years. Most of the women had middle level of income status (INR 10,001-50,000 per month) and education levels up to secondary level. The major barriers of participants not undergoing for mammography scans were: difficulty taking time away from work or family 91 (61.4%), 86 (58.1 %) had fear of being diagnosed with breast cancer and they avoided being checked, feeling of embarrassment during mammography test 63 (42.5%), 16 (10.8%) were apprehensive about harmful effect of radioactivity exposure, etc.

Conclusion: In a developing country like India, there is a need for raising awareness in relation to breast cancer and bust the myths pertaining to mammography screening in population.


Mammography, Chandigarh, Women, Barriers.

Full Text:



Cancer Facts and Figures. American Cancer Society. 2014.

Harald WF, Romundstad PR, Lars JV. Modern mammography screening and breast cancer mortality: population study. BMJ 2014; 348: 3701.

Gotzsche PC, Nielsen M. Screening for breast cancer with mammography. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013; 6.

Independent UK panel on breast cancer screening. The benefits and harms of breast cancer screening: an independent review. Lancet 2012; 380: 1778-86.

Harding C, Francesco P, Burmistrov D et al. Breast cancer screening, incidence, and mortality across US counties. JAMA Intern Med 2015; 175(9): 1483-89.

Dey S, Mishra A, Govil J et al. Breast cancer awareness at the community level among women in Delhi, India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2015; 16(13): 5243-51.

Shankar A, Rath G, Roy S et al. Level of awareness of cervical and breast cancer risk factors and safe practices among college teachers of different states in India: Do awareness programmes have an impact on adoption of safe practices? Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2015; 16(3): 927-32.

Elmore JG, Etzioni R. Effect of screening mammography on cancer incidence and mortality. JAMA Intern Med 2015; 175(9): 1490-91.

Islam SR, Aziz SM. Mammography is the most effective method of breast cancer screening. Mymensingh Med J 2012; 21(2): 366-71.

Donella P, Marco Z. Breast cancer screening: Are we seeing the benefit? BMC Med 2012; 10: 106.

Marmot MG, Altman DG, Cameron DA et al. The benefits and harms of breast cancer screening: An independent review and The Independent UK Panel on Breast Cancer Screening. Br J Cancer Jun 2013; 108(11): 2205-40.

Forouzanfar MH, Foreman KJ, Delossantos AM et al. Breast and cervical cancer in 187 countries between 1980-2010: A systematic analysis. Lancet 2011; 378: 1461-84.

Gathirua-Mwangi WG, Monahan PO, Stump T et al. Mammography adherence in African-American women. Results of a randomised controlled trial. Ann Behav Med 2015 Sep 28.

Carolyn R, Stoll T, Summer R et al. Barriers to mammography among inadequately screened women. Health Education and Behavior 2014; 10: 589-91.

Young RF, Schwartz K, Booza J. Medical barriers to mammography screening of African American women in a high cancer mortality area: Implications for cancer educators and health providers. J Cancer Educ Jun 2011; 26(2): 262-69.

Vieira RA, Lourenço TS, Mauad EC et al. Barriers related to non-adherence in a mammography breast-screening program during the implementation period in the interior of São Paulo State, Brazil. J Epidemiol Glob Health Sep 2015; 5(3): 211-19.

Fayanju OM, Kraenzle S, Drake BF et al. Perceived barriers to mammography among underserved women in a Breast Health Center Outreach Program. Am J Surg Sep 2014; 208(3): 425-34.

Alexandraki I, Mooradian AD. Barriers related to mammography use for breast cancer screening among minority women. J Natl Med Assoc 2010; 102(3): 206-18.

Mamdouh HM, El-Mansy H, Kharboush IF et al. Barriers to breast cancer screening among a sample of Egyptian females. J Family Community Med May 2014; 21(2): 119-24.

Sarma EA. Barriers to screening mammography. Health Psychol Rev 2015; 9(1): 42-62.

Fotedar V, Seam RK, Gupta MK et al. Knowledge of risk factors and early detection methods and practices towards breast cancer among nurses in Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2013; 14(1): 117-20.

Azaiza F, Cohen M, Awad M et al. Factors associated with low screening for breast cancer in the Palestinian Authority: relations of availability, environmental barriers, and cancer-related fatalism. Cancer 2010; 116(19): 4646-55.

O'Donoghue C, Esserman L. Recognising the benefits and harms of breast cancer screening: An opportunity to target improvement. Br J Cancer 2013; 108(11): 2200-201.

Gøtzsche PC, Jørgensen KJ. Screening for breast cancer with mammography. Cochrane Database Syst Rev Jun 2013; 6: 1877.

Magnus MC, Ping M, Shen MM et al. Effectiveness of mammography screening in reducing breast cancer mortality in women aged 39-49 years: A meta-analysis. J Womens Health (Larchmt) Jun 2011; 20(6): 845-52.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Comments on this article

View all comments

Copyright (c)