Desired Sex of Next Child through Three Generations in Manipur (India)

Dillip Chandra Nath, H Brojeshwor Singh, Atanu Bhatacharjee


Introduction: The traditional family is generally consisting of three generations having strong bondage among the family members and such bondage has been hypothesized to have a significant role in the desire of sex of the next child.

Objective: To study the desired level of next child sex among the family members of traditional Indian families.

Materials and Methods: A cross sectional retrospective information was collected from 1296 married women during April-November, 2011 in rural areas of four valley districts of Manipur, a state of Indian border with Myanmar using cluster sampling technique. The agreement analysis and odds ratio with Kappa statistics are applied to measure the level of desire of next child sex. The three generations including the child-bearing age couples are considered as the family members.

Results: The level of desire about son by wife (4.73) is found to be higher (P<0.01) than that of her husband (3.42).

Conclusions: The women’s child-bearing period exposes for high pregnancy rate to fulfill the specific desire of all family members. As the behavioral pattern influences the balance of sex, son preference may also be reduced to achieve the balance of sex in the population.


Generation fertility, Level of agreement, MCMC, Kappa statistics.

Full Text:



Arnold F, Choe MK, Roy TK. Son preference, the family-building process and child mortality in India. Population Studies 1998; 52: 301-15.

Clark S. The demographic effects of son preference: Evidence from India. Ph.D. Dissertation, 1999.

Clark S. Son preference and sex composition of children: Evidence from India. Demography 2000; 37(1): 95-108.

Cameron DW, da Silva BA, Arribas JR et al. A 96-week comparison of lopinavir-ritonavir combination therapy followed by lopinavir-ritonavir monotherapy versus efavirenz combination therapy. J Infect Dis 2008; 198: 234-40.

Das N. Sex preference pattern and its stability in India. Demography India 1984; 13(1,2): 108-19.

Fleiss JL. Measuring agreement between two judges on the presence or absence of a trait. Biometrics 1975; 31(3): 641.

Jensen RT. Equal treatment, unequal outcomes? Generating sex inequality through fertility behaviour. Mimeo, JFK School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, 2002.

Jha P, Kumar R, Vasa P et al. Low male to female sex ratio of children born in India: National survey of 1.1 million households. Lancet 2006; 367: 211-18.

Larsen U, Chung W, Das Gupta M. Fertility and son preference in Korea. Population Studies 1998; 52: 317-25.

Lahiri B. Demand for sons among Indian couples by rural-urban settlement size. Demography India 1984; 13(1,2): 120-32.

Miller B. The endangered sex: Neglect of female children in rural north India. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1981

Nath DC, Land KC. Sex preference and third birth intervals in a traditional Indian society. Journal of Biosocial Sciences 1994; 26(3): 377-88.

Planche T, Krishna S, Kombila M et al. Comparison of methods for the rapid laboratory assessment of children with malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg Nov 2001; 65(5): 599-602.

Park CB, Cho NH. Consequences of son preference in a low-fertility society: Imbalance of the sex ratio at birth in Korea. Population and Development Review 1995; 21: 59-84.

Scott W. Reliability of content analysis: The case of nominal scale coding. Public Opinion Quarterly 1955; 17: 321-25.

Yi Y, Liao TF, Cho NH. Male-child preferences and sex-selective abortions in Korea. Annual meetings of the Population Association of America, Washington, DC, 1997.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c)