Envenoming: Neglected Issues in Health

S.C. Mohapatra


Envenomings are diseases that result from bites by rabid mammals or bites and stings by venomous animals, especially snakes and scorpions etc. In all cases, appropriate early treatment, including therapeutic antisera, can prevent life-threatening conditions and even spread of the virus or venom toxins in the body. This will reduce a lot of deaths occurring especially in areas where health care is at a distance or is unavailable.

Full Text:



WarrelDA. Clinical Toxicology of snake bite at Africa and Middle East / Arabian Peninsula, Handbook of clinical toxicology of animal venoms and poisons, CRP Press, Florida, 1995.

WarrelDA. Injuries, envenoming poisoning and allergic reactions caused by animals, Oxford Textbook of Medicine,Oxford, 2003: 923-46.

WarrelDA.Epidemiology,clinical features and management of snake bite in central and south Americas, Venomous reptiles of Western hemispheres,Ithaca,Cornell University Press, 2004.

Konobel DL, Cleaveland S, Coleman PG etal. Reevaluating the burden of Rabies in Africa and Asia.WHO Bulletin 2005;83(5).

Sudarshan MK, Madhusudana SN, Mahendra BJ etal.Assessing the burden of human rabies in India: Result of national multi-center epidemiological survey.International Jr.Infectious Diseases 2007;11:29-35.

ChippauxJP. Snake bites: Appraisals of the global situation and determinants of fatal outcomes.WHO Bulletin 1998;76(5):515-24.

Gutierrez JM, Theakston RD, Warrell DA. Confronting the neglected problem of snakebite envenoming: The need for a Global partnership. PLoSJrMedicine 2006; 3(6): 727-31.

Fox S, Rathuwithana AC, KasturiratneA etal. Underestimation of snake bite morbidities in hospitalsin the Monaragala,Srilanka. Transaction of Royal Society of Medicine 2006;100(7): 693-95.

Sharma SK, Chappuis F,Jha N etalImpact of snakebites and determinants of fatal outcomes in southern Nepal. AmJrTropMed & Hygiene 2004; 71(2): 234-38.

WarrelDA,Arnett C. The importance of bite by the saw scaled or carpet viper:Epidemiological study in Nigeria.ActaTropica 1976; 33(4): 307-41.

Pugh RN, Theakston RDG. Malumfasi endemic diseaseresearch project report XIII,Epidemiological studies in Nigeriaand a review of world literature.Annals of TropMed& Parasitology 1980; 74(5): 523-30.

Snow RW,Bronzan R, Roques Tetal.The Prevalence and morbidity of snake bite and treatment seeking behaviouramong rural Kenya population.Annals of TropMed& Parasitology 1994; 88(6):665-71.

Sutheriand SK. Serum Reactions, An analysis of commercial antivenomsand the possible role of anticomplementary activity in de-novo reactions to antivenoms and antitoxins.Med J Aust 1977; 1(17): 613-15.

WHO. Progress of the standard of venom and antevenom, WHO offset publication, 1981.

Corrigan P, Russell FE, Wainschel J. Clinical reactions to antivenin.Toxicon 1978: 1,457-65.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Comments on this article

View all comments

Copyright (c)