An Observational Study on Activity Analysis of Nursing Personnel Working in Pediatric In-patient Unit of a Selected Hospital in Delhi

Neeraj Kumari, Bindu Shaiju, Shilpi Sarkar


The activities of nurses in wards are different throughout the day as the needs of the children vary with
the time of the day. Time spent by nurses in direct care activities has been identified as a determinant
of better patient outcome and fewer errors.1,2 Patient satisfaction is also related to the amount of care
received. Role of nurses working in pediatric wards are multifaceted as the needs of a hospitalized child are
different from an older patient. Information about the amount of time spent on various activities is very
important for the nurse manager. It provides them with evidence to maximize productivity by evaluating
the appropriate staff development; skill-mix and whether they need job re-allocation and changes in the
model of delivery care. Information is needed for evaluating changes in nursing practice following the
introduction of new system and to assess effectiveness of the new system. The present study aimed to
analyze the activity of nursing personnel working in pediatric in-patient units. The objectives of the study
were to assess the proportion of time spent by nursing personnel in various activities in pediatric inpatient
units and to compare the proportion of duty time spent by nursing personnel in various activities
in different duty shifts. The activities of 41 nursing personnel working in pediatric wards of Sanjay Gandhi
Memorial Hospital, New Delhi, comprised the sample. An observation checklist was used to analyze the
activities. Total 1511 activities were observed during seven days period in the pediatric units, using the
work sampling method. Findings showed that most of the nurse participants were engaged in direct care
activities (53%), followed by indirect care activities (28%), miscellaneous activities (14%) and least common
were unit related activities (5%). Medication, documentation, reporting was the most time-consuming
activity in the pediatric wards. The proportion of time spent in all groups of activities were different in
morning and evening and time spent for direct care and indirect care was same in the pediatric wards.
The nursing personnel in pediatric ward spent most of the time in direct care patient activities more than
indirect care patient activities. And the least common time was spent in unit-related activities in pediatric
in-patient units in both the duty shifts.


Direct patient care, Indirect patient care, Work sampling, Activity analysis

Full Text:



Urden LD, Rode JL. Work-sampling: a decision-making

tool for determining resources and work redesign.

Journal of Nursing Adm 1997; 27(9); 34-41.

Duffield C, Wise W. Tell me what we do. Using work

sampling to find answer. Aust Journal of Advance

Nursing 2003; 20(3):19-23.

Unruth LY. Employment condition at the bed side: a

cause of and solution to the RN shortage, Journal of

Nursing Administration 2005: 35(1): 11-15.

Duffield C, Wise W. Tell me what we do. Using work

sampling to find answer. Aust Journal of Advance

Nursing 2003; 20(3):19-23.

Munyisia EN, Hailey D. How nursing staff spend their

time on activities in a nursing home: an observational

study. Journal Of Advance Nursing 2011. Available from



Criwk-Morvee, MH, Hughes CM, Nursing time allowance

and other consideration for staffing. Nursing Health

Sci 2005; 7(2): 126-33.

Abbey M, Caboyer W, Mitchell M. Understanding the

work of intensive care nurses: a time and motion study.

Australia Critical Care 2012; 25(1):13-22.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Comments on this article

View all comments

Copyright (c) 2017 International Journal of Nursing & Midwifery Research

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.